Cell Cycle

Introduction

A cell cycle is a series of events that take place in a cell as it grows and divides. A cell spends most of its time in what is called interphase, and during this time it grows, replicates its chromosomes, and prepares for cell division. The cell then leaves interphase, undergoes mitosis, and completes its division. The resulting cells, known as daughter cells, each enter their own interphase and begin a new round of the cell cycle.

Gentaur Cell Cycle is the ordered sequence of events that occur in a cell in preparation for cell division. The cell cycle is a four-stage process in which the cell increases in size (gap 1, or G1, stage), copies its DNA (synthesis, or S, stage), prepares to divide (gap 2, or G2, stage), and divides (mitosis, or M stage). The G1, S, and G2 stages from interphase represent the time between cell divisions. Based on the stimulating and inhibitory messages a cell receives, it “decides” whether to enter the cell cycle and divide.

Proteins that play a role in stimulating cell division can be classified into four groups: growth factors, growth factor receptors, signal transducers, and nuclear regulatory proteins (transcription factors). For a stimulating signal to reach the nucleus and “activate” cell division, four main steps must occur. First, a growth factor must bind to its receptor on the cell membrane. Second, the receptor must be temporarily activated by this binding event. Third, this activation must stimulate the transmission or transduction of a signal from the receptor on the cell surface to the nucleus within the cell.

Finally, transcription factors within the nucleus must initiate the transcription of genes involved in cell proliferation. (Transcription is the process by which DNA is converted to RNA. Proteins are then made according to the RNA blueprint, and thus transcription is crucial as the initial step in protein production.) Cells use special proteins and checkpoint signalling systems to ensure that the cell cycle progresses correctly. Checkpoints at the end of G1 and the beginning of G2 are designed to assess DNA damage before and after the S phase. Likewise, a checkpoint during mitosis ensures that the cell’s spindle fibres are properly aligned in metaphase before the chromosomes separate in anaphase.

If DNA damage or spindle formation abnormalities are detected at these checkpoints, the cell is forced to undergo programmed cell death or apoptosis. However, the cell cycle and its checkpoint systems can be sabotaged by defective proteins or genes that cause malignant transformation of the cell, which can lead to cancer. For example, mutations in a protein called p53, which normally detects DNA abnormalities at the G1 checkpoint, may allow cancer-causing mutations to bypass this checkpoint and allow the cell to escape apoptosis.

Cell cycle stages

To divide, a cell must complete several important tasks: It must grow, copy its genetic material (DNA), and physically divide into two daughter cells. Cells perform these tasks in a series of organized and predictable steps that make up the cell cycle. The cell cycle is a cycle, rather than a linear pathway because, at the end of each round, the two daughter cells can start the exact same process from the beginning. In eukaryotic cells or cells with a nucleus, the stages of the cell cycle are divided into two main phases: interphase and the mitotic (M) phase.

  • During interphase, the cell grows and makes a copy of its DNA.
  • During the mitotic (M) phase, the cell separates its DNA into two sets and divides its cytoplasm, forming two new cells.

M phase

During the mitotic (M) phase, the cell splits its copied DNA and cytoplasm to form two new cells. The M phase involves two distinct processes related to division: mitosis and cytokinesis.

In mitosis, the cell’s nuclear DNA condenses into visible chromosomes and is pulled apart by the mitotic spindle, a specialized structure made of microtubules. Mitosis occurs in four stages: prophase (sometimes divided into early prophase and prometaphase), metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. You can learn more about these stages in the video on mitosis.

In cytokinesis, the cytoplasm of the cell splits in two, forming two new cells. Cytokinesis usually begins just as mitosis ends, with a little overlap. Importantly, cytokinesis is carried out differently in animal and plant cells.
Cytokinesis in animal and plant cells.

  • In an animal cell, a contractile ring of cytoskeletal fibres forms in the middle of the cell and contracts inward, producing a cleft called the cleavage furrow. Eventually, the contractile ring pinches the parent cell in two, producing two daughter cells.
  • In a plant cell, vesicles derived from the Golgi apparatus move toward the centre of the cell, where they fuse to form a structure called a cell plate. The cell plate expands outward and connects with the cell’s lateral walls, creating a new cell wall that divides the parent cell to form two daughter cells.

cDNA (Complementary DNA)

(cDNA) Complementary DNA is a double-stranded DNA version of an mRNA molecule. In higher eukaryotes, an mRNA is a more useful predictor of a polypeptide sequence than a genomic sequence, because the introns have been separated. Researchers prefer to use cDNA over mRNA because RNAs are inherently less stable than DNA and techniques to routinely amplify and purify individual RNA molecules do not exist.

cDNA is made from mRNA with the use of a special enzyme called reverse transcriptase, originally isolated from retroviruses. Using an mRNA molecule as a template, reverse transcriptase synthesizes a single-stranded DNA molecule that can then be used as a template for double-stranded DNA synthesis. It is not necessary to cut the cDNA in order to clone it.

DNA: the building block of life

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the molecule that carries the instructions for all aspects of an organism’s functions, from growth to metabolism to reproduction. In living organisms, most of the DNA resides in tightly coiled structures called chromosomes, located within the nucleus of each cell. DNA is made up of four different building blocks, called nucleotides, each of which is made up of one of the four nitrogenous bases. These are the purines: guanine (G) and adenine (A), and the pyrimidines: thymine (T) and cytosine (C).

These nucleotides are attached to a deoxyribose sugar and can join other deoxyribose sugars through phosphate bonds to form long chains, some of which can be more than 100,000,000 molecules long. Since each deoxyribose in a DNA strand is attached to one of four nitrogenous bases (G, A, T, or C), these long chains can carry information.

Groups of three nucleotides form the smallest but most well-defined “words” in the language of DNA. These “words” are called codons. Codons are used to request the joining of specific amino acids to form proteins. For example, the adenosine-adenosine-guanosine (AAG) codon requires the amino acid lysine (Lys) to be incorporated into a protein molecule. The AGG codon calls the amino acid arginine (arg). So AAG-AGG would require a lys to be coupled to an arg in a growing protein chain. There are also codons that, under the right circumstances, require a protein to begin to form (start codons) or a protein chain to end (stop codons). As you can see from this simple example, DNA can carry a huge amount of information.

What is genomic and complementary DNA?

The DNA that resides on the chromosomes inside the nucleus, with all the biological information that will be transferred to the next generation, is called genomic DNA (gDNA). The words “genome” and “genomic” come from the word “gene”. A gene is a set of codons that specify a specific protein chain, along with associated start and stop codons. The word genome is an extension of this concept and means the collection of all the genes and other information contained within the nuclei of the cells of an organism. Often when the word “DNA” is used without further clarification, it refers to gDNA.

In nature, the process for information to be transmitted from DNA can occur through gene replication or gene expression. There are some important factors to keep in mind:

  • DNA can copy itself in a process known as replication, using DNA polymerase.
  • Information from DNA passes through messenger RNA (mRNA), which contains sets of four nucleotides (uracil, adenine, guanine, and cytosine).
  • mRNA is produced when enzymes, such as RNA polymerase, bind to specific genes and copy their information into RNA using ribose sugar (not deoxyribose as in DNA). This process is called transcription.
  • Ribosomes assemble around the mRNA, creating a chain of amino acids to create specific proteins. This is called translation.
  • Due to the ribose sugar chains, mRNA is short-lived. It is designed to transmit information from the chromosomes in the nucleus to the machinery that makes proteins.
  • The mRNA rapidly degrades after it has completed its purpose.

Initially, it was observed that gDNA was always read and transcribed into mRNA, which guided protein formation, and was then removed. The notion that information can always flow from DNA to RNA to protein was jokingly called the central dogma of molecular biology.

The functions of gDNA and cDNA

cDNA can be described as gDNA without all the necessary non-coding regions, thus it gets its name as complementary DNA. The main distinction to be made between cDNA and gDNA is the existence of introns and exons. Introns are nucleotides in genes that do not have coding sequences. Introns are usually cleaved or “removed” from RNA in the transcription process before proteins are created. It should be noted that prokaryotes are not capable of splicing introns. Exons are a necessary part of the coding system and are retained after introns are spliced. Extron’s are non-splicing introns, even though they do not contain coding sequences.

When scientists use viral enzymes to make cDNA from RNA isolated from the cells and tissues they are studying, it does not contain introns because it is spliced ​​into mRNA. The cDNA also does not contain any other gDNA that does not directly code for a protein (referred to as non-coding DNA). Lastly, not all genes in gDNA are transcribed into mRNA at any given time. As a result, the cDNA will only contain genes that are actively being used by a specific cell or tissue at any given time. There is much less total information in cDNA than in gDNA, but the information that remains may be much more relevant to what a researcher is looking for since it does not contain sequences that are unnecessary for DNA function and replication.

Once isolated, gDNA can be used to create genomic libraries for DNA sequencing, fingerprinting, differentiation, and other applications in both the clinical and research fields. cDNA can also be used to make cDNA libraries, permanent collections of cDNA that can be copied and/or stored long-term and is commonly used to clone eukaryotic genes into a prokaryote. In this way, a protein expressed in a eukaryotic organism can be introduced into a prokaryote. For this process, cDNA over gDNA is used, since prokaryotes cannot stimulate introns contained in gDNA.

To isolate cDNA, RNA must first be isolated from an organism. Then, using a reverse transcriptase enzyme, cDNA can be produced. This is the process that retroviruses use to incorporate themselves into the cells of their host. Retroviruses, such as simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV), use their cDNA to produce mRNA in the host, leading to the production of viral proteins. This is possible because retroviruses use RNA as genomic material instead of DNA, and it is reverse transcribed into cDNA, which then undergoes normal transcription and leads to viral protein in the host.

Custom and pre-made gDNA and cDNA available on BioChain

BioChain provides access to a comprehensive and well-documented tissue bank containing isolated samples that have been tested for contaminants. As part of rigorous quality control, gDNA samples are analyzed by spectrophotometer and electrophoresis, with concentration determined by UV260 measurement and plant concentration determined by green peak measurement. All gDNA is treated with RNase to remove all RNA.

Genomic DNA comes from unique sources, including hundreds of healthy or diseased organ tissues from humans, animals, and plants. gDNA has applications ranging from SNP analysis, methylation studies, copy number variation (CNV) analysis, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), Southern blotting, next-generation sequencing, and PCR.

Tryptophan Repressor

Abstract

Tryptophan biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is regulated by the trpR gene product, the Gentaur Tryptophan Repressor (Trp). The trp aporepressor binds to the corepressor, L-tryptophan, to form a holopressor complex, which binds tightly to the trp operator DNA and inhibits transcription of the tryptophan biosynthetic operon. The conservation of trp operator sequences among enteric Gram-negative bacteria suggests that trpR genes from other bacterial species can be cloned by complementation in E. coli. To clone trpR homologues, the E. coli trpR gene, delta trpR504, was deleted from a plasmid by site-directed mutagenesis, then crossed into the E. coli genome.

Plasmid clones of Enterobacter aerogenes and Enterobacter cloacae trpR genes were isolated by complementation of the trpR504 delta allele, qualified as the ability to repress beta-galactosidase synthesis from a prophage-transmitted trpE-lacZ gene fusion. The predicted amino acid sequences of four enteric TrpR proteins show differences, clustered at the back of the folded repressor, versus DNA-binding helix-turn-helix substructures.

These differences are predicted to have little effect on interactions of aporepressor with tryptophan, holorepressor with operator DNA, or holorepressor dimers linked in tandem with each other. Although some variation in the dimer interface is observed, the interactions expected to stabilize the interface are preserved. The phylogenetic relationships revealed by the TrpR amino acid sequence alignment are consistent with the results of others.

In E. coli, the synthesis of the amino acid tryptophan from precursors available to the cell requires 5 enzymes. The genes that encode them are grouped into a single operon with its own promoter and operator. When tryptophan is available to the cell, its presence turns off the operon.

Mechanism

  • One tryptophan molecule binds to one site on each Trp repressor monomer.
  • The Trp repressor, a homodimer of two of these complexes, binds to the operator of the Trp operon.
  • This stops the transcription of all 5 genes in the operon, so the enzymes used in Trp synthesis are not synthesized.

This stereoscopic view () shows the tryptophan repressor (right side of each panel) bound to its operator DNA (left side). The two identical repressor polypeptides are shown on either side of the horizontal red line. The two tryptophan molecules are shown as red rings. Also, look for the alpha-helix stretches in each monomer. You may find it easier to merge the two images into a 3D view by holding an 8.5 x 11″ (22 x 28 cm) sheet of paper vertically between your nose and the dividing line between the two images on the screen so that your left eye sees only the image on the left, his right eye only the right.

Sensitive and Specific Cadmium Biosensor Developed by Reconfiguring Metal Transport and Leveraging Natural Gene Repositories

Sensitive and Specific Cadmium Biosensor Developed by Reconfiguring Metal Transport and Leveraging Natural Gene Repositories

Whole-cell biosensors are helpful for monitoring heavy steel toxicity in public well being and ecosystems, however their improvement has been hindered by intrinsic trade-offs between sensitivity and specificity. Here, we demonstrated an efficient engineering resolution by constructing a delicate, particular, and high-response biosensor for carcinogenic cadmium ions. We genetically programmed the steel transport system of Escherichia coli to complement intracellular cadmium ions and deprive interfering steel species. We then chosen 16 cadmium-sensing transcription components from the GenBank database and examined their reactivity to 14 steel ions within the engineered E. coli utilizing the expression of the inexperienced fluorescent protein because the readout.

The ensuing cadmium biosensor was extremely particular and confirmed a detection restrict of three nM, a linear improve in fluorescent intensities from zero to 200 nM, and a maximal 777-fold sign change. Using this whole-cell biosensor, a smartphone, and low-tech gear, we developed a easy assay able to measuring cadmium ions on the similar focus vary in irrigation water and human urine. This technique is user-friendly and cost-effective, making it inexpensive to display screen massive quantities of samples for cadmium toxicity in agriculture and medication. Moreover, our work highlights pure gene repositories as a treasure chest for bioengineering.

Promise and challenges of dystonia mind banking: establishing a human tissue repository for research of X-Linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism

X-Linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism (XDP) is a neurodegenerative illness affecting people with ancestry to the island of Panay within the Philippines. In latest years there was appreciable progress at elucidating the genetic foundation of XDP and candidate illness mechanisms in patient-derived mobile fashions, however the neural substrates that give rise to XDP in vivo are nonetheless poorly understood. Previous research of restricted XDP postmortem mind samples have reported a selective dropout of medium spiny neurons throughout the striatum, though neuroimaging of XDP sufferers has detected extra abnormalities in a number of mind areas past the basal ganglia.

Given the necessity to totally outline the CNS constructions which are affected on this illness, we created a mind financial institution in Panay to function a tissue useful resource for detailed research of XDP-related neuropathology. The outcomes point out that this pipeline preserves tissue integrity to an extent suitable with a variety of morphologic, molecular, and biochemical analyses. Thus the algorithms that we developed for working in rural communities might function a information for establishing related mind banks for different uncommon illnesses in indigenous populations.

Here we describe this platform, from donor recruitment and consent to tissue assortment, processing, and storage, that was assembled inside a predominantly rural area of the Philippines with restricted entry to medical and laboratory services. Thirty-six brains from XDP people have been collected over an preliminary four years interval. Tissue high quality was assessed primarily based on histologic staining of cortex, RNA integrity scores, detection of neuronal transcripts in situ by fluorescent hybridization chain response, and western blotting of neuronal and glial proteins.

Sensitive and Specific Cadmium Biosensor Developed by Reconfiguring Metal Transport and Leveraging Natural Gene Repositories

Cost per response evaluation of repository corticotropin injection versus different various therapies for acute exacerbations of a number of sclerosis

Relapses are widespread in sufferers with a number of sclerosis (MS) even after using disease-modifying therapies. Repository corticotropin injection (RCI), plasmapheresis (PMP), and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) could also be utilized as various therapies within the administration of MS relapse. There is an absence of well being financial research on these various therapies for the acute exacerbations of MS. The goal of this research was to estimate the fee per response of RCI in contrast with PMP or IVIg from the United States (US) business payer perspective. Costs and response charges have been sourced from printed peer-reviewed observational research.
The value per response for every therapy was calculated by dividing the overall annual value of care by the proportion of sufferers with resolved relapse for every therapy. The incremental value per response ratio was calculated by dividing the distinction in prices and the proportion of responses for RCI versus PMP or IVIg. One-way sensitivity evaluation (OWSA) was performed for each prices and response charges. All included prices have been inflated to the 2019 US {dollars}. With a decrease complete annual value of care and a better response fee, RCI had a decrease value per response (US$141,970) in contrast with PMP or IVIg (US$253,331). RCI had a decrease value per response even when extra stringent estimates for RCI have been utilized within the OWSA. The annual value of care had a larger affect on the fee per response within the OWSA.

Rat Norepinephrine Transporter (NET) ELISA Kit

DLR-NET-Ra-96T 96T
EUR 861.6
Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Rat Norepinephrine Transporter (NET) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates or other biological fluids.

Rat Norepinephrine Transporter (NET) ELISA Kit

RD-NET-Ra-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 668.4

Rat Norepinephrine Transporter (NET) ELISA Kit

RD-NET-Ra-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 930

Rat Norepinephrine Transporter (NET) ELISA Kit

RDR-NET-Ra-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 699.6

Rat Norepinephrine Transporter (NET) ELISA Kit

RDR-NET-Ra-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 973.2

Rat neurofascin (Nfasc)-control Control/blocking peptide

AB-23249-CP 100ug
EUR 196.8

Rat GTRAP41 Control/blocking peptide

GTRAP41-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat GTRAP48 Control/blocking peptide

GTRAP48-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Mouse CABP9K (D9K/CALB3 or CABP1) Control/blocking peptide #1

D9K11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human CABP9K (D9K/CALB3 or CABP1) Control/blocking peptide #2

D9K12-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Mouse Lipin-1 Control/blocking peptide control/blocking peptide #1

LPN11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Mouse Lipin-2 Control/blocking peptide control/blocking peptide #1

LPN21-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Mouse Lipin-3 Control/blocking peptide control/blocking peptide #1

LPN31-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human ice Protease-Activating Factor (IPAF) or CARD12 Control/blocking peptide

IPAF11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Control/Blocking peptide CD40

CD4011-C 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Control/Blocking peptide EOMES

EMS11-C 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Amylin Control/blocking peptide # 3

AMYL13-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat AVP V1b Control/blocking peptide

AVP1B13-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat AVP-V2 Control/blocking peptide

AVPV21-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Nephrin Control/blocking peptide #1

NPHN11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat EAAT4 Control/blocking peptide #1

EAAT41-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat UT2 Control/blocking peptide #1

RUT21-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Syntenin Control/blocking peptide #1

SDB11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Positive control tissue section for each antibody; Based on availability INQUIRE

Control-Slides Set of 5
EUR 211.2

Human Norepinephrine Transporter (NET) ELISA Kit

DLR-NET-Hu-48T 48T
EUR 620.4
Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Norepinephrine Transporter (NET) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates or other biological fluids.

Human Norepinephrine Transporter (NET) ELISA Kit

DLR-NET-Hu-96T 96T
EUR 807.6
Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Norepinephrine Transporter (NET) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates or other biological fluids.

Mouse Norepinephrine Transporter (NET) ELISA Kit

DLR-NET-Mu-48T 48T
EUR 632.4
Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse Norepinephrine Transporter (NET) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates or other biological fluids.

Mouse Norepinephrine Transporter (NET) ELISA Kit

DLR-NET-Mu-96T 96T
EUR 825.6
Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse Norepinephrine Transporter (NET) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates or other biological fluids.

Human Norepinephrine Transporter (NET) ELISA Kit

RD-NET-Hu-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 625.2

Human Norepinephrine Transporter (NET) ELISA Kit

RD-NET-Hu-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 867.6

Mouse Norepinephrine Transporter (NET) ELISA Kit

RD-NET-Mu-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 639.6

Mouse Norepinephrine Transporter (NET) ELISA Kit

RD-NET-Mu-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 888

Human Norepinephrine Transporter (NET) ELISA Kit

RDR-NET-Hu-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 652.8

Human Norepinephrine Transporter (NET) ELISA Kit

RDR-NET-Hu-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 907.2

Mouse Norepinephrine Transporter (NET) ELISA Kit

RDR-NET-Mu-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 668.4

Mouse Norepinephrine Transporter (NET) ELISA Kit

RDR-NET-Mu-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 928.8

Influenza A virus (H5N1) matrix protein 2 hybrid sequence Control/blocking peptide

M2E11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human CYP1B1 control/blocking peptide

CYP1B11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Mouse CYP1B1 control/blocking peptide

CYP1B12-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human Barttin Control/blocking peptide

BRTN11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Mouse Agouti Control/blocking peptide

AGO11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Mouse AQP12 control/blocking peptide

AQP125-P 100 ug
EUR 182.4

Mouse Klotho Control/blocking peptide

KL11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human Livin Control/blocking peptide

LIVN11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Mouse Moesin control/blocking peptide

MSN11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human Iceberg control (blocking) peptide

ICEBERG11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human Parkin Control/blocking peptide

PARK11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human Sialin control/blocking peptide

SIAL11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Connexin 30.3 (Cx30.3) Control/blocking peptide

CX303-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Connexin 31.1 (Cx31.1) Control/blocking peptide

CX311-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Dopamine Transporter Control/blocking peptide # 1

DAT11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Akt-2 Control/blocking peptide #1

AKT21-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Akt-3 Control/blocking peptide #1

AKT31-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat DRASIC/ASIC3 Control/blocking peptide #1

DRASIC31-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat FAS Ligand Control/blocking peptide #1

FASL11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat neurofascin (Nfasc)-phosphor Control/blocking peptide

AB-23249-P 100ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Bin 1b Control/blocking peptide #1

BIN1B11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) Control/blocking peptide

AQP31-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat ASIC4/BNAC4/SPASIC Control/blocking peptide

ASIC41-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat AVP V1a Control/blocking peptide # 1

AVP1A11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat AVP V1a Control/blocking peptide # 2

AVP1A12-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat/human Oxytocin Control/blocking peptide #1

OT15-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Oxytocin Receptor Control/blocking peptide #1

OTR11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat MDEG2/ASIC2b Control/blocking peptide #1

MDEG21-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Neuromedin U control/blocking peptide # 2

NMU51-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat EAAC1/EAAT3 Control/blocking peptide #1

EAAC11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Proline transporter Control/blocking peptide #1

PROL11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Synuclein-alpha Control/blocking peptide # 2

SYN12-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Taurine Transporter (TAU) Control/blocking peptide

TAU11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Urotensin 2 Control/blocking peptide # 1

UT21-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

(NANP)5 peptide (repeat-sequence peptide of the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein, CSP) control/blocking peptide

NANP51-P 1 mg
EUR 416.4

(PPPPNAND)3 peptide (repeat-sequence peptide of the P. berghei circumsporozoite protein, CSP) control/blocking peptide

PPPP321-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

TSPAN5 / NET-4 Peptide

43-169P 0.1 mg
EUR 405.6

Rat Exchange inhibitory peptide (XIP) Control/blocking peptide #1

XIP11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

(DRAAGQPAG)3 (repeat-sequence peptide of the P. vivax circumsporozoite protein, CSP) control/blocking peptide

DRAA31-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

(NVDP)4 peptide (minor repeat-sequence peptide of the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein, CSP) control/blocking peptide

NVDP41-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Cannabinoid receptor (CB1) Control/blocking peptide # 2

CB12-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Cannabinoid receptor (CB2) Control/blocking peptide # 2

CB22-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Connexin 32 (Cx32) Control/blocking peptide # 1

CX32A11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Connexin 32 (Cx32) Control/blocking peptide # 2

CX32B12-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Connexin 32 (Cx32) Control/blocking peptide # 3

CX32C13-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Connexin 37 (Cx37) Control/blocking peptide # 2

Cx37B12-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Connexin 40 (Cx40) Control/blocking peptide #2

Cx40B12-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Connexin 46 (Cx46) Control/blocking peptide #1

Cx46-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Adipsin/Factor D control/blocking peptide # 1

ADN11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat/human Akt-1 Control/blocking peptide #4

AKT14-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2) Control/blocking peptide

AB-23099-P 100ug
EUR 196.8

Rat transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2) Control/blocking peptide

AB-23100-P 100ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) Control/blocking peptide #1

AQP11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) Control/blocking peptide #1

AQP12-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) Control/blocking peptide #1

AQP21-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) Control/blocking peptide #2

AQP22-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) Control/blocking peptide #1

AQP41-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) Control/blocking peptide #1

AQP51-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Aquaporin 7 (AQP7) Control/blocking peptide # 1

AQP71-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Aquaporin 7 (AQP7)Control/blocking peptide # 2

AQP72-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Aquaporin 8 (AQP8) Control/blocking peptide #1

AQP81-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Aquaporin 8 (AQP8) Control/blocking peptide # 2

AQP82-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Aquaporin 9 (AQP9) Control/blocking peptide #1

AQP91-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Aquaporin 9 (AQP9) Control/blocking peptide # 2

AQP92-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Androgen Receptor (AR) Control/blocking peptide #1

AR11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat/Human Orexin-A Control/blocking peptide # 1

OXA11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat MDEG1/ASIC2a/BNaC1 Control/blocking peptide #1

MDEG11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat GABA Transporter (GAT1) Control/blocking peptide #1

GAT11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat GABA Transporter (GAT2) Control/blocking peptide #1

GAT21-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat GABA Transporter (GAT3) Control/blocking peptide #1

GAT31-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat GABAb-R1a (GBR1a) Control/blocking peptide #1

GBR1A11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat GABAb-R1b (GBR1b) Control/blocking peptide #1

GBR1B11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat GABAb-R2 (GBR2) Control/blocking peptide #1

GBR21-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat GABAb-R2 (GBR2) Control/blocking peptide #2

GBR22-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Prostaglandin Transporter (PGT) Control/blocking peptide #1

PGT11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Serotonin Transporter (SERT) Control/blocking peptide #1

SERT11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Thyroid Iodide Transporter (TIT) Control/blocking peptide

TIT11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) Control/blocking peptide

VAT11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Rat Vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) Control/blocking peptide

VGAT11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Mouse Clock Control/blocking peptide # 1

CLO11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human Clock Control/blocking peptide # 2

CLO12-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Drosophila Clock Control/blocking peptide # 1

CLO13-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human Calcitonin (CT) Control/blocking peptide

CT11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human CYP26A1 control/blocking peptide #1

CYP26A11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human CYP26A1 control/blocking peptide #2

CYP26A12-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human Adrenomedullin (ADM) Control/blocking peptide

ADML11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Mouse dermatopontin (Dpt) Control/blocking peptide

AB-23026-P 100ug
EUR 196.8

Human angiomotin (AMOT) Control/blocking peptide

AB-23056-P 100ug
EUR 196.8

Human hepcidin (HEPC) Control/blocking peptide

AB-23112-P 100ug
EUR 196.8

Mouse Meckelin (Mks3) Control/blocking peptide

AB-23268-P 100ug
EUR 196.8

Human Amylin Control/blocking peptide # 2

AMYL12-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Control/Blocking peptide Human BCL-2

BCL11-C 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Control/Blocking peptide Mouse BCL-2

BCL21-C 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Drosophila BMAL Control/blocking peptide # 1

BMALD11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Mouse/Human AQP11 control/blocking peptide

AQP115-P 100 ug
EUR 182.4

Human Aven Control/blocking peptide # 1

AVEN11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Mouse Aven Control/blocking peptide # 2

AVEN12-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Mouse Leptin Control/blocking peptide # 1

OB11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Mouse Leptin Control/blocking peptide # 2

OB12-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human KST1 Control/blocking peptide # 1

KST11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human MOP3 Control/blocking peptide #1

MOP31-P 100 ug
EUR 182.4

Human MOP4 Control/blocking peptide #1

MOP41-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human MOP4 Control/blocking peptide #2

MOP42-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human Motilin control/blocking peptide # 1

MOTL11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human MutY Control/blocking peptide #1

MUTY11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Mouse Neprilysin (NEP) Control/blocking peptide

NEP11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human NHERF1 Control/blocking peptide #1

NHERF11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human NHERF2 Control/blocking peptide #1

NHERF21-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human Nicastrin control (blocking) peptide #1

NICN11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human HE2 Control/blocking peptide #1

HE21-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human Galanin Control/blocking peptide # 1

GAL51-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Mouse Hephaestin (Hp) control/blocking peptide

HEPH11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Hev-b1 Control/blocking peptide (HEVB11)

HEVB11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human Ghrelin control/blocking peptide # 1

GHS11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human Ghrelin control/blocking peptide # 2

GHS12-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human EAAT5 Control/blocking peptide #1

EAAT51-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Mouse Per1 Control/blocking peptide #1

PER11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Human Per1 Control/blocking peptide #2

PER12-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8
Based on the estimates from the real-world proof, our financial analysis means that RCI might have real-world medical and financial advantages for sufferers with MS relapse who fail on corticosteroid remedy. Repository corticotropin injection (RCI; Acthar® Gel) is indicated to induce a diuresis or a remission of proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome (NS) with out uremia of the idiopathic kind or that as a result of lupus erythematosus. This research compares affected person traits and measurable healthcare useful resource utilization (HCRU) between NS sufferers who acquired a prescription for RCI and then have been both accepted or denied therapy by their insurers.

Acthar® Gel (repository corticotropin injection) dose-response relationships in an animal model of epileptic spasms

Acthar® Gel (repository corticotropin injection) dose-response relationships in an animal model of epileptic spasms

Studies have been undertaken to judge the effectiveness of Acthar® Gel (repository corticotropin injection [RCI]) in the tetrodotoxin (TTX) model of early-life-induced epileptic spasms. Repository corticotropin injection (RCI) is broadly used in the United States to deal with childish spasms. A serious element of RCI is N25 deamidated ACTH. Additionally, we hoped to supply some perception into the attainable function circulating corticosteroids play in spasm cessation by evaluating the RCI dose-response relationships for spasm suppression to RCI-induced corticosterone launch from the adrenal gland. Spasms have been induced by persistent TTX infusion into the neocortex starting on postnatal day 11.

Repository corticotropin injection (RCI) dosages have been between Eight and 32 IU/kg/day. Drug titration protocols have been used, and comparisons have been made to injections of a automobile gel. Video/EEG recordings (24/7) monitored the drug’s results repeatedly for as much as 2 months. Tetrodotoxin (TTX)-infused management rats have been monitored for a similar interval of time. In separate experiments, the identical dosages of RCI got to rats and 1 h later plasma was collected and assayed for corticosterone. The value of care included MS-related inpatient, outpatient, and remedy prices. Treatment response was outlined as no proof of extra relapse therapy or process claims inside 30 days after therapy.

A parallel examine in contrast the consequences of 1-day and 10-day RCI remedies on circulating corticosterone. Results confirmed that RCI was ineffective at dosages of 8, 12, and 16 IU/kg/day however eradicated spasms in 66% of animals handled with 24 or 32 IU/kg/day. Treating animals with 32 IU/kg/day alone produced the identical diploma of spasms suppression as noticed throughout the titration protocols. In rats that had hypsarrhythmia-like exercise, RCI eradicated this irregular interictal EEG sample in all rats that grew to become seizure-free. In phrases of plasma corticosterone, 1- and 10-day remedies with RCI produced comparable will increase in this hormone and the degrees elevated linearly with rising dosages of RCI.

This stood in sharp distinction to the sigmoid-like dose-response curve for decreases in spasm counts. Our outcomes additional validate the TTX model as related for the examine of childish spasms. The model ought to be helpful for investigating how RCI acts to get rid of seizures and hypsarrhythmia. Dose-response outcomes recommend that both very excessive concentrations of circulating corticosteroids are required to abolish spasms or RCI acts by a distinct mechanism. In the oblique remedy comparability of six eligible scientific trial research, the chances of attaining efficacy outcomes have been 5 to eight instances larger with RCI than with tetracosactide and 14 to 16 instances larger than CCMC.

A Systematic Literature Review and Indirect Treatment Comparison of Efficacy of Repository Corticotropin Injection versus Synthetic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone for Infantile Spasms

Infantile spasms is a uncommon illness characterised by distinct seizures and hypsarrhythmia. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is on the market as a pure product (repository corticotropin injection, [RCI]; Acthar® Gel) and as artificial analogs. RCI is a naturally-sourced advanced combination of purified ACTH analogs and different pituitary peptides accredited by the United States Food and Drug Administration as a monotherapy for the remedy of childish spasms. RCI is usually used in the United States. Outside the United States, artificial analogs of ACTH-synthetic ACTH1-24 (tetracosactide) and artificial ACTH1-39 (corticotropin carboxymethyl-cellulose [CCMC])-are used.

The efficacy of RCI could differ from that of artificial ACTH remedies primarily based on the construction of peptide; nonetheless, no head-to-head scientific trials have in contrast the efficacy of RCI and artificial ACTH remedies. A scientific overview and oblique remedy comparability of scientific trials was carried out to evaluate the comparative efficacy of RCI and artificial ACTH remedies in childish spasms.

A search was carried out in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases by September 30, 2020. Relevant scientific trials on RCI or artificial ACTH remedy and reporting both cessation of spasms or decision of hypsarrhythmia, individually or as a mixed final result have been included. A Bayesian oblique remedy comparability utilizing a fixed-effects model was used for comparative efficacy. Of 473 citations screened, 21 research have been reviewed qualitatively. This translated to a threat discount of 10% to 14% and 40% to 50% with RCI versus tetracosactide and CCMC, respectively.

For each two to 5 sufferers handled, RCI improved efficacy outcomes in one extra affected person in comparison with artificial ACTH (adjusted quantity needed-to-treat).Based on the out there restricted proof, outcomes recommend RCI could also be extra efficacious for childish spasms than artificial ACTH remedies. Our findings present a blueprint to tell the design of future potential research for the remedy of childish spasms.

Acthar® Gel (repository corticotropin injection) dose-response relationships in an animal model of epileptic spasms

Quality evaluation of real-world knowledge repositories throughout the info life cycle: A literature overview

Data high quality (DQ) have to be constantly outlined in context. The attributes, metadata, and context of longitudinal real-world knowledge (RWD) haven’t been formalized for high quality enchancment throughout the info manufacturing and curation life cycle. We sought to finish a literature overview on DQ evaluation frameworks, indicators and instruments for analysis, public well being, service, and high quality enchancment throughout the info life cycle. The overview adopted PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) pointers.
Databases from well being, bodily and social sciences have been used: Cinahl, Embase, Scopus, ProQuest, Emcare, PsycINFO, Compendex, and Inspec. Embase was used as an alternative of PubMed (an interface to go looking MEDLINE) as a result of it consists of all MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) phrases used and journals in MEDLINE in addition to extra distinctive journals and convention abstracts. A mixed knowledge life cycle and high quality framework guided the search of revealed and grey literature for DQ frameworks, indicators, and instruments. At least 2 authors independently recognized articles for inclusion and extracted and categorized DQ ideas and constructs. All authors mentioned findings iteratively till consensus was reached.

AAV2 Null Control Virus

AAV-352 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: Null (empty) control virus of AAV serotype 2.

AAV1-Luc Control Virus

AAV-321 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: Luciferase control virus of AAV serotype 1.

AAV3-Luc Control Virus

AAV-323 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: Luciferase control virus of AAV serotype 3.

AAV4-Luc Control Virus

AAV-324 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: Luciferase control virus of AAV serotype 4.

AAV5-Luc Control Virus

AAV-325 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: Luciferase control virus of AAV serotype 5.

AAV6-Luc Control Virus

AAV-326 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: Luciferase control virus of AAV serotype 6.

Positive control tissue section for each antibody; Based on availability INQUIRE

Control-Slides Set of 5
EUR 211.2

AAV2 antibody

10R-A111a 50 ug
EUR 706.8
Description: Mouse monoclonal AAV2 antibody

AAV2 antibody

10R-A140a 50 ug
EUR 818.4
Description: Mouse monoclonal AAV2 antibody

AAV1-GFP Control Virus

AAV-301 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: GFP control virus of AAV serotype 1.

AAV3-GFP Control Virus

AAV-303 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: GFP control virus of AAV serotype 3.

AAV4-GFP Control Virus

AAV-304 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: GFP control virus of AAV serotype 4.

AAV5-GFP Control Virus

AAV-305 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: GFP control virus of AAV serotype 5.

AAV6-GFP Control Virus

AAV-306 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: GFP control virus of AAV serotype 6.

AAV1-Cre Control Virus

AAV-311 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: Cre control virus of AAV serotype 1.

AAV3-Cre Control Virus

AAV-313 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: Cre control virus of AAV serotype 3.

AAV4-Cre Control Virus

AAV-314 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: Cre control virus of AAV serotype 4.

AAV5-Cre Control Virus

AAV-315 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: Cre control virus of AAV serotype 5.

AAV6-Cre Control Virus

AAV-316 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: Cre control virus of AAV serotype 6.

scAAV1-GFP Control Virus

AAV-331 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: Self-complementary GFP control virus of AAV serotype 1.

scAAV2-GFP Control Virus

AAV-332 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: Self-complementary GFP control virus of AAV serotype 2.

scAAV3-GFP Control Virus

AAV-333 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: Self-complementary GFP control virus of AAV serotype 3.

scAAV4-GFP Control Virus

AAV-334 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: Self-complementary GFP control virus of AAV serotype 4.

scAAV5-GFP Control Virus

AAV-335 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: Self-complementary GFP control virus of AAV serotype 5.

scAAV6-GFP Control Virus

AAV-336 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: Self-complementary GFP control virus of AAV serotype 6.

AAV1-LacZ Control Virus

AAV-341 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: LacZ control virus of AAV serotype 1.

AAV3-LacZ Control Virus

AAV-343 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: LacZ control virus of AAV serotype 3.

AAV4-LacZ Control Virus

AAV-344 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: LacZ control virus of AAV serotype 4.

AAV5-LacZ Control Virus

AAV-345 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: LacZ control virus of AAV serotype 5.

AAV6-LacZ Control Virus

AAV-346 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: LacZ control virus of AAV serotype 6.

AAV1 Null Control Virus

AAV-351 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: Null (empty) control virus of AAV serotype 1.

AAV3 Null Control Virus

AAV-353 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: Null (empty) control virus of AAV serotype 3.

AAV4 Null Control Virus

AAV-354 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: Null (empty) control virus of AAV serotype 4.

AAV5 Null Control Virus

AAV-355 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: Null (empty) control virus of AAV serotype 5.

AAV6 Null Control Virus

AAV-356 50 ?L
EUR 1221.6
Description: Null (empty) control virus of AAV serotype 6.

pRedZeo-CMV Virus [positive control]

SR10046VA-1 >2 x 10^6 IFUs
EUR 826.8

pRedTK-CMV Virus [positive control]

SR10052VA-1 >2 x 10^6 IFUs
EUR 826.8

pGreenZeo-mCMV Virus [negative control]

SR500VA-1 >2 x 10^6 IFUs
EUR 806.4

pGreenZeo-CMV Virus [positive control]

SR501VA-1 >2 x 10^6 IFUs
EUR 806.4

Rabbit Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E04A0397-192T 192 tests
EUR 1524
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rabbit Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Rabbit Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E04A0397-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 624
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rabbit Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Rabbit Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E04A0397-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 822
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rabbit Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Goat Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E06A0397-192T 192 tests
EUR 1524
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Goat Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Goat Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E06A0397-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 624
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Goat Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Goat Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E06A0397-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 822
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Goat Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Dog Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E08A0397-192T 192 tests
EUR 1524
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Canine Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Dog Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E08A0397-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 624
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Canine Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Dog Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E08A0397-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 822
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Canine Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Mouse Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E03A0397-192T 192 tests
EUR 1524
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Mouse Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Mouse Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E03A0397-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 624
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Mouse Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Mouse Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E03A0397-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 822
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Mouse Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Monkey Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E09A0397-192T 192 tests
EUR 1524
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Monkey Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Monkey Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E09A0397-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 624
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Monkey Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Monkey Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E09A0397-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 822
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Monkey Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Rat Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E02A0397-192T 192 tests
EUR 1524
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rat Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Rat Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E02A0397-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 624
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rat Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Rat Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E02A0397-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 822
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rat Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Human Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E01A0397-192T 192 tests
EUR 1524
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Human Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E01A0397-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 822
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Pig Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E07A0397-192T 192 tests
EUR 1524
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Porcine Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Pig Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E07A0397-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 624
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Porcine Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Pig Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E07A0397-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 822
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Porcine Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Guinea pig Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E05A0397-192T 192 tests
EUR 1524
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Guinea pig Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Guinea pig Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E05A0397-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 624
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Guinea pig Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Guinea pig Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) ELISA kit

E05A0397-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 822
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Guinea pig Adeno Associated Virus type 2 Antibody (AAV2-Ab) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Influenza A virus HA Control/blocking peptide

AB-23091-P 100ug
EUR 196.8

Vaccinia virus Complement control protein C3 (VACWR025)

1-CSB-YP302389VAI
  • EUR 814.80
  • EUR 402.00
  • EUR 2606.40
  • EUR 1261.20
  • EUR 1730.40
  • EUR 522.00
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Vaccinia virus Complement control protein C3(VACWR025) expressed in Yeast

pT7- Luc

PVT10670 2 ug
EUR 361.2

pSBE- Luc

PVT10816 2 ug
EUR 361.2

pTRE3G- LUC

PVT10818 2 ug
EUR 361.2

pAP1- Luc

PVT10819 2 ug
EUR 361.2

pHSE- Luc

PVT10820 2 ug
EUR 319.2

pGRE- luc

PVT10821 2 ug
EUR 319.2

pCRE- Luc

PVT10825 2 ug
EUR 361.2

pViperin- Luc

PVT10826 2 ug
EUR 361.2

pTA- Luc

PVT10827 2 ug
EUR 361.2

pTAL- Luc

PVT10829 2 ug
EUR 361.2

pIRF3- Luc

PVT10830 2 ug
EUR 361.2

p53- Luc

PVT10836 2 ug
EUR 319.2

pBV-Luc

PVT12245 2 ug
EUR 843.6

pMR-Luc

PVT14074 2 ug
EUR 843.6

Baboon Anti-Rabies Virus IgG antiserum negative control

600-070-03N 1 ml
EUR 196.8

Baboon Anti-Rabies Virus IgG antiserum positive control

600-070-04P 1 ml
EUR 270

Purified Nipah virus Glycoprotein control for Western Blotting

NIV11-C 100 ul
EUR 343.2

Purified Nipah virus Nucleoprotein control for Western Blotting

NIV21-C 100 ul
EUR 270

pCDH-Cuo-RFP-T2A-GFP (positive control virus)

QM350VA-1 >1 x 10^6 IFUs
EUR 763.2

pUC57-Tac-Luc

PVT18215 2 ug
EUR 309.6

p21-Luc Plasmid

PVTB00035-2c 2 ug
EUR 427.2

IgK- IFN- luc

PVT10425 2 ug
EUR 319.2

pNFAT- TA- Luc

PVT10808 2 ug
EUR 319.2

pE2F- TA- Luc

PVT10809 2 ug
EUR 319.2

pISRE- TA- Luc

PVT10810 2 ug
EUR 319.2

pGAS- TA- Luc

PVT10811 2 ug
EUR 319.2

pP53- TA- luc

PVT10814 2 ug
EUR 361.2

pStat3- TA- luc

PVT10815 2 ug
EUR 361.2

pHes1 (2.5k)- Luc

PVT10832 2 ug
EUR 319.2

pHes1 (467)- luc

PVT10833 2 ug
EUR 319.2

pNF-kB-Luc

PVT1322 2 ug
EUR 390

pGL3-ELAM-Luc

PVT14533 2 ug
EUR 718.8

proE-cad178-Luc

PVT14614 2 ug
EUR 718.8

pSynSRE-T-Luc

PVT14626 2 ug
EUR 843.6

β-Lactamase (Luciferase) lentiviral particles

LVP335-luc 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 418.8
Description: pre-made lentiviral particles expressing β-Lactamase gene. A firefly luciferase marker was expressed under RSV promoter. Particles is provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

A549 / Luciferase (Puromycin) stable cell line

SC043-Luc 2 x 106 cell/ml x 1ml
EUR 1104
Description: Luciferase (firefry) expression stable cell line in A549 human cancer cell line with Puromycin marker.

Human AsPC1 / Luciferase Cell Line

SC062-Luc 2 x 106 cell/ml x 1ml
EUR 1800
Description: Firefly luciferase expression stable cell line in Human AsPC1 cells with Puromycin resistance

mouse MOPC315 / Luciferase Cell Line

SC063-Luc 2 x 106 cell/ml x 1ml
EUR 2670
Description: Firefly luciferase expression stable cell line in mouse MOPC315 cells with Puromycin resistance

Huamn SW403 / Luciferase Stable Cells

SC067-Luc 2 x 106 cell/ml x 1ml
EUR 1800
Description: Firefly luciferase expression stable cell line in human SW403 cells with Puromycin resistance

Human PANC-1 / Luciferase (Puro) Cell Line

SC068-Luc 2 x 106 cell/ml x 1ml
EUR 2670
Description: Firefly luciferase expression stable cell line in Human PANC-1 cells with Puromycin resistance

Human Anti-Mumps Virus (parotitis) IgG negative control serum

520-100-01N 1 ml
EUR 196.8

Human Anti-Mumps Virus (parotitis) IgG positive control serum

520-100-02P 1 ml
EUR 270

Mouse Anti-Mumps Virus (parotitis) IgG negative control serum

520-130-05N 1 ml
EUR 196.8

Mouse Anti-Mumps Virus (parotitis) IgG positive control serum

520-130-06P 1 ml
EUR 270

Monkey Anti-Mumps Virus (parotitis) IgG negative control serum

520-160-03N 1 ml
EUR 196.8

Monkey Anti-Mumps Virus (parotitis) IgG positive control serum

520-160-04P 1 ml
EUR 270

Rhesus Monkey Anti-Rabies Virus IgG antiserum negative control

600-070-01N 1 ml
EUR 196.8

Rhesus Monkey Anti-Rabies Virus IgG antiserum positive control

600-070-02P 1 ml
EUR 270

Monkey (Cynomolgous) Anti-Rabies Virus IgG antiserum negative control

600-070-05N 1 ml
EUR 196.8

Cynos Monkey Anti-Rabies Virus IgG antiserum positive control

600-070-06P 1 ml
EUR 270

Camelpox virus H3L/p35 protein control for western blot

CPOX11-C 100 ul
EUR 343.2

Mayaro virus (MAYV) Capsid Protein control for Western Blotting

MAYV31-C 100 ul
EUR 343.2

Mayaro virus (MAYV) nsP1 protein control for Western Blotting

MAYV41-C 100 ul
EUR 343.2

Mayaro virus (MAYV) 6K Protein control for Western Blotting

MAYV51-C 100 ug
EUR 343.2

Mayaro virus (MAYV) E3 protein control for Western Blotting

MAYV61-C 100 ul
EUR 343.2

pGreenPuro Scramble Hairpin Control - Virus (for shRNAs and miRZips)

MZIP000-VA-1 >1 x 10^6 IFUs
EUR 859.2

Control/Blocking peptide for Tobacco Mosaic Virus Movement Protein

TMVMP11-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Zika Virus prM Protein (African) control for Western blot

ZPRM11-C 100 ul
EUR 343.2

Recombinant Polyoma Virus (KV, Pneumotropic virus) Capsid Protein 1 (VP1) control for Western blot

KVP14-C 100 ul
EUR 343.2

PinPoint Donor Positive Control Vector: CM->Luciferase (pPP-CMV-Luc-pA-attB-Puro-pA)

PIN610A-1 10ug
EUR 1227.6

Baboon Anti-Rabies Virus Glycoprotein (RVG) IgG antiserum negative control

600-180-01N 1 ml
EUR 196.8

Baboon Anti-Rabies Virus Glycoprotein (RVG) IgG antiserum positive control

600-180-02P 1 ml
EUR 270

Human Anti-Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) IgG Negative Control Serum

510-300-01N 1 ml
EUR 196.8

Monkey Anti-Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) IgG Negative Control Serum

510-325-01N 1 ml
EUR 196.8

Monkey Anti-Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) IgG Positive Control Serum

510-325-02P 1 ml
EUR 270

Mouse Anti-Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) IgG negative control serum

510-345-01N 1 ml
EUR 196.8

Mouse Anti-Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) IgG positive control serum

510-345-02P 1 ml
EUR 270

Simian virus 5 (starin W3) P/V Control/blocking peptide

AB-23077-P 100ug
EUR 196.8

Camel Anti-Camelpox virus H3L/p35 IgG negative control serum

AE-311170-01N 1 ml
EUR 196.8

Camel Anti-Camelpox virus H3L/p35 IgG positive control serum

AE-311170-02P 1 ml
EUR 270

Influenza A virus (H5N1) matrix protein 2 Control/blocking peptide

M2E15-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Influenza A virus (H1N1) matrix protein 2 Control/blocking peptide

M2E16-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Influenza A virus (H9N2) matrix protein 2 Control/blocking peptide

M2E17-P 100 ug
EUR 196.8

Bovine Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) control for western blot

LSDV11-C 100 ul
EUR 343.2

pSIF1-H1-siLuc-copGFP Positive Transduction Control (pre-packaged virus)

LV201B-1 >1 x 10^6 IFUs
EUR 838.8

Recombinant Rat sialodacryoadenitis Virus (SDAV) nucleoprotein control for Western blot

SDAV11-C 100 ul
EUR 343.2

Bovine Anti-Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) negative control serum

RV-500700-01N 1 ml
EUR 196.8

Bovine Anti-Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) positive control serum

RV-500700-02P 1 ml
EUR 270
The 120 included articles yielded ideas associated to contextual (knowledge supply, custodian, and consumer) and technical (interoperability) elements throughout the info life cycle. Contextual DQ subcategories included relevance, usability, accessibility, timeliness, and belief. Well-tested computable DQ indicators and evaluation instruments have been additionally discovered.  A DQ evaluation framework that covers intrinsic, technical, and contextual classes throughout the info life cycle permits evaluation and administration of RWD repositories to make sure health

Protocol for the development of a repository of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials conducted in adult care homes (the Virtual International Care Homes Trials Archive (VICHTA))

Protocol for the development of a repository of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials conducted in adult care homes (the Virtual International Care Homes Trials Archive (VICHTA))
Approximately 418,000 folks dwell in care homes in the UK, but accessible, sturdy data on care dwelling populations and organisation are missing. This hampers our means to plan, allocate assets or stop threat. Large randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in care homes provide a potential resolution. The worth of detailed data on residents’ demographics, outcomes and contextual info captured in RCTs has but to be absolutely realised. Irrespective of the intervention examined, a lot of the trial data collected overlaps in phrases of structured assessments and descriptive info.
Given the time and prices required to prospectively accumulate data in these populations, pooling anonymised RCT data into a structured repository presents profit; secondary analyses of pooled RCT data can enhance understanding of this under-researched inhabitants and improve the future trial design. This protocol describes the creation of a project-specific repository of individual participant data (IPD) from trials conducted in care homes and subsequent enlargement into a legacy dataset for wider use, to deal with the want for correct, high-quality IPD on this susceptible inhabitants.
Informed by scoping of related literature, the principal investigators of RCTs conducted in adult care homes in the UK since 2010 will probably be invited to contribute trial IPD. Contributing trialists will type a Steering Committee who will oversee data sharing and stay gatekeepers of their very own trial’s data. IPD will probably be cleaned and standardised in session with the Steering Committee for accuracy. Planned analyses embrace a comparability of pooled IPD with level estimates from administrative sources, to evaluate generalisability of RCT data to the wider care dwelling inhabitants.
We may even establish key resident traits and outcomes from inside the trial repository, which is able to inform the development of a nationwide minimal dataset for care homes. Following challenge completion, administration will migrate to the Virtual Trials Archives, forming a legacy dataset which will probably be expanded to incorporate worldwide RCTs, and will probably be accessible to the wider analysis neighborhood for analyses. Analysis of pooled IPD has the potential to tell and direct future follow, analysis and coverage at low value, enhancing the worth of current data and lowering analysis waste. We intention to create a everlasting archive for care dwelling trial data and welcome the contribution of rising trial datasets.

OGP: A Repository of Experimentally Characterized O-Glycoproteins to Facilitate Studies on O-Glycosylation

Numerous research on most cancers, biopharmaceuticals, and medical trials have necessitated complete and exact evaluation of protein O-glycosylation. However, the lack of up to date and handy databases deters the storage of and reference to rising O-glycoprotein data. To resolve this difficulty, an O-glycoprotein repository named OGP was established in this work. It was constructed with a assortment of O-glycoprotein data from completely different sources. OGP accommodates 9354 O-glycosylation websites and 11,633 site-specific O-glycans mapping to 2133 O-glycoproteins, and it’s the largest O-glycoprotein repository to date. Based on the recorded O-glycosylation websites, an O-glycosylation web site prediction instrument was developed.

The first model of OGP repository and the web site enable customers to acquire numerous O-glycoprotein-related info, equivalent to protein accession numbers, O-glycosylation websites, glycopeptide sequences, site-specific glycan constructions, experimental strategies, and potential O-glycosylation websites. To tackle the challenges posed by large-scale development, validation, and adoption of synthetic intelligence (AI) in pathology, now we have constituted a consortium of teachers, small enterprises, and pharmaceutical corporations and proposed the BIGPICTURE challenge to the Innovative Medicines Initiative.

Our imaginative and prescient is to change into the catalyst in the digital transformation of pathology by creating the first European, ethically compliant, and quality-controlled entire slide imaging platform, in which each large-scale data and AI algorithms will exist. Our mission is to develop this platform in a sustainable and inclusive means, by connecting the neighborhood of pathologists, researchers, AI builders, sufferers, and trade events primarily based on creating worth and reciprocity in use primarily based on a neighborhood mannequin as the mechanism for making certain sustainability of the platform.

Protocol for the development of a repository of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials conducted in adult care homes (the Virtual International Care Homes Trials Archive (VICHTA))

Missense3D-DB net catalogue: an atom-based evaluation and repository of 4M human protein-coding genetic variants

The interpretation of human genetic variation is one of the biggest challenges of fashionable genetics. New approaches are urgently wanted to prioritize variants, particularly these which might be uncommon or lack a definitive medical interpretation. We examined 10,136,597 human missense genetic variants from GnomAD, ClinVar and UniProt. We had been capable of carry out large-scale atom-based mapping and phenotype interpretation of 3,960,015 of these variants onto 18,874 experimental and 84,818 in home predicted three-dimensional coordinates of the human proteome.

We show that 14% of amino acid substitutions from the GnomAD database that could possibly be structurally analysed are predicted to have an effect on protein construction (n = 568,548, of which 566,439 uncommon or extraordinarily uncommon) and will, subsequently, have a but unknown disease-causing impact. Moreover, an OGP-based web site is already accessible (http://www.oglyp.org/). The web site contains 4 specifically designed and user-friendly modules: statistical evaluation, database search, web site prediction, and data submission.

Mouse IgG3 Isotype Control (APC)

abx200590-100ug 100 ug
EUR 878.4

Mouse IgG3 Isotype Control (PerCP)

abx200591-100ug 100 ug
EUR 878.4

Mouse IgG3 Isotype Control (FITC)

abx405036-100tests 100 tests
EUR 510

Mouse IgG3 Isotype Control (RPE)

abx405037-100tests 100 tests
EUR 510

Mouse IgG3 Isotype control; Concentrate

NG908C 1 ml
EUR 428.4

Mouse IgG3-Biotin conjugate (isotype control)

20102-104-B