Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)


HD patients diagnosed with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease or another cause of acute or chronic liver disease, patients on ATT or any hepatotoxic medications, patients on anti-HCV therapy or undergoing dialysis for acute renal failure and people diagnosed with HCV before the study period were not included in the research.

Hepatitis B

For individuals using HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B in whom seroconversion doesn’t occur but HBV DNA is fully suppressed on treatment, continued normalization of their ALT and sustained HBV DNA suppression are the only markers of effective treatment and the absence of antiviral immunity, as detected in HBeAg-negative hepatitis. Adults who have chronic HBV infection have a 15 to 20% risk of dying in HBV-related liver disorder such as liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).


In adolescence, 3 to 5 percent and 0.01 to 0.03% of patients having chronic HBV infection develop cirrhosis and HCC, respectively.

Although host factors (e.g., male sex, older age, African or Asian ancestry, and family history of HCC) and viral factors (e.g., higher viral load, HBV genotype, longer duration of infection, and co-infection with hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, or hepatitis D virus) are known risk factors for HCC 3, predicting that chronic HBV-infected kids ought to be treated is difficult.


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) -HBV coinfection is a significant health issue with rapid progression of liver disease without precise identification and therapy. All anti-HCV positive results need to be verified by detecting HCV RNA levels (viral load) from the blood, commonly using the PCR procedure 5 False-negative speed of anti-HCV is often greater among HD patients (≤12 percent ), for example as lipoic acid testing (NAT) is much more warranted for its dialysis patients In a study by Tashkandy et al. 7, they discovered the false correlation of HCVAb by ELISA and recombinant immunoblot assay, when compared with real-time (RT) -PCR, was 3.9 percent, whereas assessing ELISA with RT-PCR, the false positivity was 5.9 percent. Therefore the screening method is determined based upon the incidence of HCV disease in the various dialysis centre. Fattovich et al. 18), who studied the progression of chronic hepatitis B by followup biopsies, showed the bad prognosis of anti-HBe-positive and serum-HBV-DNA-negative (by dot blot) patients with chronic hepatitis B. However, they did not suggest the fair explanation for the cause of advanced liver disease in these patients.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a single-stranded enveloped RNA virus belonging to the flaviviridae family, is a globally significant pathogen, infecting over 170 million people worldwide with about one million new cases being reported annually.1,2 In India, approximately 15 million people are positive for anti-HCV radicals with reported prevalence of HCV approximately 15-20% in chronic liver diseases (CLD) patients.3 Published statistics from Brazil showed that around 1.5% of the Brazilian population is anti-HCV optimistic,4 compounding it into the current inhabitants, the HCV disease burden can be estimated to be around 2.86 million. Total recovery from acute hepatitis C, which is defined by sustained clearance of HCV RNA and normalization of the transaminase level, appears to happen spontaneously in 30%-50% of cases of non–transfusion-associated acute hepatitisnonetheless, antiviral therapy is still recommended to decrease the risk of progress toward chronicity 1, 2 This retrieval, achieved with or without antiviral therapy, may be accompanied by a gradual loss of antibodies to various HCV proteins also, sometimes, by complete seroreversion 3, 4 Yet, the absence of HCV seroconversion in patients with severe hepatitis C has seldom been discovered, particularly using sensitive third-generation serological assays.

  1. Lee H-S Kim W, Kim CY. Relative role of hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus in HBsAg-negative patients with chronic liver disease in Korea: Determination of serum HBV DNA of serum anti-HCV using ELISA and using polymerase chain reaction. Even more than 95-99% of adults with acute HBV infection recover spontaneously and display anti-HBs antibody seroconversion a subset of patients can develop liver failure and, consequently, may gain from NA therapy. Serum HBeAg concentration is correlated with virus load in patients and reflects virus replication and hepatitis activity. But following seroconversion, many patients may exhibit reactivation and high viral load. In these scenarios, HBeAg is generally negative because of masking by anti-HBe antibody. Although the HBeAg/anti-HBe immune complex can be detected according to the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and HBV-DNA. Therefore, HBcAg and HBeAg might be expected to be efficient markers of virus load when dinosaurs had been inactivated and the antigens released.
    IL10 promoter and IL28B polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with HBV infection control 5, 6, 26 Genetic variations of their IL-10 gene promoter (IL-10-819 and −592) were correlated with disease progression in adult patients with chronic HBV disease 5 In addition, genetic variations of this IL-10 gene promoter (IL-10-592) were correlated with a greater risk of persistent HBV infection in adults 6 A pediatric study in Taiwan revealed the IL-10-1082 genotype GG and IL-12-10993 genotype CG, which influence the serum levels of IL-10 and IL-12, were correlated with premature spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion 8 Nevertheless, this study failed to reveal a significant association between early HBeAg seroconversion and cytokine genetic variations. The European principles for kids with chronic HBV infection urge basing the decision to begin treatment on ALT levels, HBeAg positivity, HBV-DNA levels, liver histology, family history of HCC, co-existing liver disease, and the patient’s treatment history 2 In particular, HBeAg-seroconversion is generally accompanied with the remission of liver disease and exerts a positive outcome in children as well as adults.
    By combining the molecular examination to determining the genotype of hepatitis C virus and viral load using q-PCR and ELISA way of exploring the core HCV (HCVcAg) antigen, this study can function as publication alternate to prevent the infection of HCV lead to cirrhosis as well as hepatocellular carcinoma. ALT is found in the cytosol, as a liver enzyme widely used as an indicator of hepatocellular damage in chronic and acute hepatitis 16 – 18 The goal of this study was to identify the viral load correlation with the number of HCV core antigen and aminotransferase levels in HCV infection.
    This patient could have been identified as having viral disease due to his clinical symptoms; however, the vast majority of patients with newly acquired HCV infection don’t present with symptoms and may not be diagnosed 8 This novel case report describing HCV seroconversion after a bloody altercation in prison has important clinical and public health implications for correctional facilities, in which the prevalence of HCV disease is ∼20 times that of the general US population 2 Though the transmission danger following a needlestick exposure is estimated to be 2%-3%, the risk of HCV acquisition via a bloody altercation is unknown. The level of the serum HBV DNA in such patients with ALT flare in chronic hepatitis B can be happened in patients experiencing an antiviral therapy with the HBV genome’s resistant using a pre-core/core-promoter or to the broker mutation. Despite carrying rigorous infection-control measures designed to prevent transmission of blood-borne pathogens including HCV from the treating facility along with the Hospital Infection Control committee, 29 of the overall 123 samples (23.5%) which were seronegative and had a normal ALT level were positive with PCR Table 1 These positive samples led to 50.9percent of the Group 1 cases Table 3 Of these, 68.9% had a high viral count at the time of screening in spite of their normal ALT levels and seronegative status Table 3 It is known that mysterious HCV infections, (relating to patients infected chronically with HCV but are seronegative and have a positive HCV RNA) additionally reduces the sensitivity of serology in the diagnosis of HCV disease.

Hepatitis B Research

Will we need novel combinations to cure HBV infection?

Journal: Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver


Chronic hepatitis B is a numerically important cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Nucleoside analogue therapy may modify the risk. However, maintenance suppressive therapy is required, as a functional cure (generally defined as loss of HBsAg off treatment) is an uncommon outcome of antiviral treatment. Chronic hepatitis B is a numerically important cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Nucleoside analogue therapy may modify the risk. However, maintenance suppressive therapy is required, as a functional cure (generally defined as loss of HBsAg off treatment) is an uncommon outcome of antiviral treatment. Currently numerous investigational agents being developed to either interfere with specific steps in HBV replication or as host cellular targeting agents, that inhibit viral replication, and deplete or inactivate cccDNA, or as immune modulators. Synergistic mechanisms will be needed to incorporate a decrease in HBV transcription, impairment of transcription from HBV genomes, loss of cccDNA or altered epigenetic regulation of cccDNA transcription, and immune modulation or immunologically stimulated hepatocyte cell turnover. Nucleoside analogue suppressed patients are being included in many current trials. Trials are progressing to combination therapy as additive or synergistic effects are sought. These trials will provide important insights into the biology of HBV and perturbations of the immune response, required to effect HBsAg loss at different stages of the disease. The prospect of cures of hepatitis B would ensure that a wide range of patients could be deemed candidates for treatment with new compounds if these were highly effective, finite and safe. Withdrawal of therapy in short-term trials is challenging because short-term therapies may risk severe hepatitis flares, and hepatic decompensation. The limited clinical trial data to date suggest that combination therapy is inevitable.
Geoffrey Dusheiko

The effect of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate on bone mineral density: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal: Antiviral therapy


We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (CRD#42017070552) to quantify the impact of oral TDF/FTC on bone mineral density (BMD), and the risk of osteoporosis, low bone mass, and fractures, among people taking it as PrEP, HIV treatment and hepatitis B (HBV) treatment.We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for randomized controlled trials published 1997-2018 reporting BMD, osteoporosis, low bone mass, and/or fractures in treatment-naïve patients taking compared to not taking TDF for 48±4 weeks. We pooled outcomes using DerSimonian random-effects models.
Our search yielded 5178 abstracts, representing 3865 articles, with 25 meeting the inclusion criteria. TDF was associated with greater BMD decline when taken as PrEP (lumbar spine: mean difference, MD=-0.82%, 95%CI=-1.28,-0.37%, I2=38%; total hip: MD=-0.81%, 95%CI=-1.22,-0.40%, I2=48%) and HIV treatment (lumbar spine: MD=-1.62%, 95%CI=-2.30,-0.95%, I2=93%; total hip: MD=-1.75%, 95%CI=-2.08,-1.42%, I2=83%; femoral neck: MD=-1.26%, 95%CI=-2.15,-0.38%, I2=43%) in comparison to those not taking TDF. Eight studies reported on incident osteoporosis or low bone mass, with variable results. Pooled results from five PrEP studies showed that TDF was not associated with increased fractures compared to no PrEP (RR=1.12, 95%CI=0.752,1.74, I2=26%).
TDF caused greater decreases in BMD than did comparators when used for all three indications, and the magnitude of this decrease was larger for HIV treatment compared to PrEP. Fractures were not increased among PrEP patients. The clinically-significant BMD decline caused by TDF and current expansion of PrEP use suggest attention to the adverse bone effects of TDF will increase in importance.
Benjamin Baranek; Shaoyuan Wang; Angela Cheung; Sharmistha Mishra; Darrell Tan

Immune Therapies

Journal: Humana Press

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered an inflammation-induced cancer as it often develops in the setting of chronic hepatitis. Therefore, the application of immune-based therapies may provide an ideal approach to treatment. As a matter of fact, hepatitis B vaccination can be seen as the first preventive cancer vaccine for HCC. The recent approval of nivolumab as second-line therapy for patients with advanced HCC has been the pinnacle of years of research and clinical trials in the application of immunotherapies to patients with HCC. The liver, unlike most organs, has an immune-tolerant microenvironment due to its high antigen exposure from the gut which is often coupled with chronic immune stimulation from confounding liver disease. As a result, efforts to understand HCC antigens as well as the tumor microenvironment has enabled advances in the application of immunotherapies to HCC. Immune-based therapies can be categorized as checkpoint inhibitors, adoptive cell transfer, cytokine-based therapy, and vaccines. In this chapter, we discuss the application of different immunotherapies to HCC.
Zachary Brown; Tim Greten